Begin to Knit Easy Patterns

Begin to Knit for Everyone




So!


You want to knit?

Well, why not when it’s so easy with Dawn yarns and this easy-to-follow instruction book. You’ll find plain and fancy stitches and difficult looking but oh, so easy to knit designs. And when these designs are knitted with the soft pastels or bright, beautiful colors of Dawn Yarns ... ready, you’re in!



Knitting Abbreviations

K - Knit
P - Purl
St(s) - Stitch(es)
YO -  Yarn Over
Dec. -  Decrease
Inc. - Increase
Tog. - Together
Rnd. - Round
P.s.s.o. - Pass slip st over st
DPN - Double pointed needle
K-O - Do not work st, row or round
Beg. - Beginning
Bet. - Between
*  -  an asterisk. This indicates that the instructions following are to be repeated across a row or for the number of stitches or times specified.



Basic needs and know-how: 


Yarns

Yarns vary in size, twist, and texture. Use the “Dawn” Yarn indicated in the directions as only an experienced expert knitter knows how to allow for the difference when a substitution is made. 
It is also very important to purchase all the yarn needed at one time as different dye lots frequently have different shades of color.
When you purchase your yarn always check the dye lot number to make certain they are all the same. 

It is much wiser to purchase a little extra yarn than to try and match the dye lot after your garment is finished. 

Though the color may look the same in the skein more often than not the difference will be seen in the finished work. 

The “ply” of yarn means the number of strands twisted together. This can be seen by taking the end of the yarn and untwisting.
Fundamentals and some tips

Learn the basic stitches 


There are only three: Knit, Purl, and slip. 

All the others are produced by variations and in combination with yarn overs. See  Pass Slip Stitch Over (P.S.S.O.) method below.

Practice first with heavy yarn and thick needles. 

Study the stitch and the position it takes on the needle. 

Follow arrows in the illustration. 

Learn to recognize when it is wrong. 

Watch the yarn to see where each loop of the stitch begins and ends. 

If you lay your knitting aside for a few days or longer, always rip back a few rows before starting again. 

This will prevent an uneven row. See the method below for ripping back.

Parentheses in our instructions are used for an explanation of an st, a certain section of a garment, or change of sts for change of size. 

Row is once across the needle. 

Ridge is 2 rows, back and forth. 

Work Even means to continue in pattern st keeping the continuity of the design.

Always Measure straight up and down unless otherwise stated.


Winding wool


Winding the wool correctly is important. 

Never wind wool tightly as this stretches it. 

Wind several strands around fingers, slip these from fingers. 

Over these strands, in the opposite direction, wind a few more strands wrapping yarn around fingers and ball. 

Continue in this manner, always winding over fingers and in the opposite direction from last winding.

Left-hand knitting


Follow the instructions but change your copy to read the left hand where it says “right hand” and vice versa. 

Use a mirror to study diagrams and charts. 

This will reverse the image for you.


Marker


This term is used whenever it is important that a certain point is to be marked. 

Example: increase, decrease, beginning of a row or round, buttonholes, center st, etc.

To make a marker of yarn, use a different color; make a slip knot leaving ends about 2 inches in length. 

Place on the needle as directed. 

Slip marker off one needle to the other needle in each successive round.

Joining yarns


If possible, join the new yarn with a knot at the beginning of a row. 

If this cannot be done, work next st with new yarn leaving a 4-inch length. 

Work a few sts, tie the ends firmly, and with a yarn needle weave ends into work.

Multiple of sts

This term is used generally at the beginning of directions and means that a certain multiple of sts is necessary to work one pattern. 

Example: multiple of 4 sts would mean any number divisible by 4 or 12, 16, 24 sts, etc. 

A multiple of 4 plus 2 would be 14, 18, 26 sts, etc., or any number that has 2 more sts after dividing by 4.

Knitting Needle Types


Straight needlesare used when working back and forth in rows. 

They come in lengths of 10, 12, and 14 inches and sizes O-1-2-3, etc. 

The larger the number, the thicker the needle.

Double pointed needles: come in sets of 4 or 5. 

They are used for socks, mittens, and any articles made in rounds.

Circular needles: are used in making skirts, or parts of garments when a seam is not desired; also in completing a large doily or a round tablecloth.

Directions give the size and the type of needle required and it is not advisable to change the size unless it is necessary in order to obtain the correct gauge.

Cable needles: are short with a bend in the center to hold sts from slipping off. 

They are available in thin or thick sizes for the different yarns. 

A short double pointed needle may also be used. 

It is a good idea after placing sts on the straight needle to be used for cable to stick a needle into the garment slightly, this will prevent sts from slipping off needle.

Stitch holders:  are used to holding sts to be used later. 

Example: sts at the back of the neck or when all sts are cast on and worked to armholes, then divided for front and back. 

The stitch holders can be purchased or a safety pin or length of yarn may be used.

Stitch counters: usually placed on knitting needles. 

They have a dial and after working a row, turn the dial to the next number.

Bobbins:  usually made of plastic to hold small amounts of yarn for use in making argyle socks or the Fair Isle, Scandinavian, or Ski patterns.


GaugeThe stitch gauge which appears at the beginning of all instructions is most important to the size and fit of your garment. 

Before starting, make a sample swatch of the pattern stitch with the needles and yarn specified. 

If you have more sts than gauge, use larger needles. 

If you have fewer sts than gauge, use smaller needles. 

Check your gauge as you progress to assure a perfectly sized garment, Ill. No. 1.


Casting on 

Allow about ½ inch for each st for fine yarn and 1 inch for each st for heavy yarn. 

Make a slip knot on the needle, Ill. No. 2. 

* Hold the needle in the right hand, hold both lengths of yarn in the left hand (see arrows) having the short end of the yarn under and to outside of the thumb and main length of yarn under and to outside of forefinger, Ill. No. 3.

Insert the needle through the loop formed on the thumb, pick up yarn on forefinger and draw through a loop, Ill. No. 4, let the loop drop from the thumb and tighten st on the right needle with the thumb. 

Repeat from * leaving about ¼ inch between sts until the required number of sts have been cast on, Ill. No. 5.









Plain knitting

Hold needle containing stitches in the left hand. 

Follow the arrows. 

* With yarn in back of work, insert free needle from left to right in front of st, yarn under and over the point of the needle and draw through st, slip stitch just worked from left needle. 

Retain a new stitch on the right needle. 

Repeat from * until all stitches are on the right needle. 

2nd Row and Succeeding Rows: Place the needle holding stitches in the left hand with a free needle in the right hand. 

Insert the free needle in 1st stitch and complete same as 1st row








Garter stitch 

K each st, K each row.


Purling 

Hold work the same as for Knitting, but hold yarn to front of work. 

Follow the arrows. * Insert needle from right to left in front of st, yarn around and in back of the point of the needle, draw through st having new stitch on right needle, slip stitch off the left needle. 

Repeat from * until all stitches are on the right needle.





Stockinette stitch 

Knit 1 row, Purl 1 row when working with 2 needles. 

K each row when working with a circular needle or on 3 or 4 double-pointed needles.


14 Knit Side
15 Purl Side

Ribbing 

Ribbing consists of an alternate number of Knit and Purl stitches. 

In Knit 2, Purl 2 ribbing the number of stitches cast on is usually divisible by 4. 

1st ROW: K 2, P 2 across row. In the next row again start with K 2.

In ribbing, the smooth sts are knitted, the sts with rough side are purled. 

In binding off ribbing Knit the Knit sts and Purl the Purl stitches.

To decrease or narrow

In Knitting, Knit 2 sts together (Ill. No. 17), in Purling, Purl 2 sts together.



Pass Slip Stitch Over (P.S.S.O.)

(Another method of decreasing). 

In knitting instructions p.s.s.o. means to slip 1 st, K (or P) next st, then pass the slip st over the K (or P) st by inserting left needle into slip st on right needle and passing over the K st on the right needle. 

Follow arrows in illustrations.




To increase 

Knit or Purl 1 st (as directions call for), but do not slip stitch from the left needle (Ill. No. 22 & 23). 

Knit or Purl into the back of the same st, then slips stitch off the needle (Ill. No. 24).

The illustration shows a Knit increase.





Yarn over

Unless otherwise instructed when knitting, bring yarn forward and over right needle to back, K next st. 

When Purling, bring yarn over and under the right needle and to front, P next st. 

The yarn over forms a loop on the needle which is worked as a stitch, it is used usually for lacy patterns and beadings.




Bind off 

Do not bind off too tightly.

Knitting: K 2 sts, * pass the 1st stitch over the 2nd stitch: follow arrows (Ill. 27, 28, 29), K next st, repeat from * until one stitch remains on right needle, cut yarn and draw through last st.

Purling: P 2 sts, * pass 1st stitch over 2nd stitch, P next st, repeat from * until one stitch remains on right needle, cut yarn and draw through last st. Not illustrated.

In pattern: Either Knit or Purl st to be bound off as it would have been worked in the corresponding row of pattern, then bind off for knitting or purling whichever pattern calls for. Not illustrated.






To slip a stitch

Slip one st from left needle to right needle without knitting or purling inserting the right needle in the st as if to Knit unless otherwise directed. 

When slipping the stitch leave yarn to the wrong side unless directed otherwise.

Picking up stitches... Dropped st ...

In stockinette stitch pick up a stitch on the right side of work. 

Using a crochet hook, insert hook in dropped st, draw yarn to row above through loop forming a new loop. 

Continue in this manner until you reach the row being worked being careful not to twist the sts. (Ill. No. 30). 

Purl sts are picked up by inserting crochet hook through dropped st from in back of sts. (Ill. No. 31). 

In Garter stitch alternate the two movements. 

Ripping back: Unravel work within the last row of the point desired. 

Rip the last row a stitch at a time placing each stitch on a free needle, preferably a finer double-pointed needle, then place these sts back on size needle you are using. 

Continue knitting as directed.



Picking up stitches

Around neck and armholes are usually done with smaller needles. 

Hold the work with the right side toward you and work from right to left. 

Insert right needle into the first st from the edge, pick up stitches (Ill. No. 32). 

When picking up stitches on an irregular edge be sure to pick up a stitch in every row. 

Always work with the right side toward you unless otherwise directed.


Buttonholes 

Work to the point specified. 

Bind off three or more stitches according to directions and work to end of row. 

In the following row work to the bound-off sts and cast on the same number of stitches bound off in the previous row and complete the row. (Ill. No. 33 and 34).

Weaving toe

Cut yarn leaving about a 14-inch length, thread this into a darning needle.

* insert the needle through first st of the first needle as if knitting and slip stitch off the needle.

Pass through next stitch as if purling and leave the stitch on need.

Draw yarn through first st of back needle as if purling and slip stitch off the needle.

Draw yarn through the next stitch of the back needle as if knitting and leave the stitch on the needle.

Repeat from * until all stitches have been worked, fasten neatly.




Duplicate stitch

This is the stitch used most often for embroidering the desired motif on a knitted article. 

It is worked by * bringing the needle through the center of stitch from the wrong side to the right side of work—see ill. 

A. Following the outline of the knit stitch above, draw the yarn across the back of the two strands of this stitch, see ill. A and B, return the needle to the center of the same stitch, see ill. B, and draw yarn through. 

Repeat from * starting next stitch by bringing the needle through the center of stitch to be duplicated, see ill. C.

ILL. A
ILL. A

ILL. A

Changing colors in knitting

At the end of a row, tie in the new color and continue in pattern. 

When changing colors always twist yarns around each other to prevent a hole. 

If the color is carried over more than 4 sts, the carried color should be twisted around the yarn that is being worked to prevent loose lengths on the wrong side. 

Twist the in the following manner; pick up carried color, before knitting st in usual manner twist over yarn that is carried. 

Cut colors only when you are through with that color leaving about a 4 or 5-inch length to be fastened later with a yarn sewing needle. 

If designs to be worked are separated or only 1 design is worked in a corner of the garment, use bobbins, see bobbin designs to work design.

General information 


Directions are given for Ladies small (size 12, Bust 32). 

Changes for Ladies’ Medium (Size 14, Bust 34) and Large (Size 16, Bust 36) are given in parentheses. 

Men’s small (Size and Chest 38), Medium (Size and Chest 40), and Large (Size and Chest 42) are given in boldface type.

Changing sizes 

Note: When working with pattern sts Add or Subtract the multiple of sts or repeats necessary to work one inch of gauge for size desired.

Larger
(1) For each size larger than given, Add the number of sts called for in Gauge to make 1 inch to both back and front cast on sts.

(2) Continue to follow directions given to armhole shaping or desired length to armhole. Bind off 2 sts more for each size larger. Work ¼ inch more in length.

(3) Shape shoulders: Bind off 2 sts more each shoulder for each size larger.

(4) Sleeves: Add 2 sts more in the cuff, then 2 sts more in the last row of ribbing. Bind off 2 sts more each side at underarm.

Smaller
(1) For each size smaller than the size given, Subtract the number of sts called for in Gauge equal to 1 inch from both front and back cast on sts.

(2) Continue to follow directions to armhole shaping or desired length to armhole. Bind off 2 sts less for each size smaller. Work ¼ inch less in length for each size smaller.

(3) Shape shoulders: Bind off 2 sts less for each size smaller.

(4) Sleeves: Subtract 4 sts at cuff and bind off 2 sts less each side at underarm.

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